The Latest CPR and First Aid Updates
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The Latest CPR and First Aid Updates


Approximately every five years, the CPR training
industry undergoes revisions and updates to
its protocols. It’s important to know what
the differences are in the current recommendation
year as compared to the one that’s currently
outdated. We’re gonna be talking about those
updates, so that you can become more aware
of the current recommendations and compare
them to the way you were trained in the past.
We have several topics but we’re gonna start
with basic CPR. The CPR recommendations really
haven’t changed a whole lot. But the re-emphasis
is on the rate of compression and the depth
of compression. You see the rate of compression
before was at least 100 times per minute.
But the current recommendation is that it’s
at least 100 and no more than 120 compressions
per minute. The other emphasis is on the depth
of compression. Before it said at least 2
inches deep and now we have a ceiling. It’s
at least 2 inches deep and no more than 2.4
inches deep. We’ve also re-emphasized the
fact that though hands only CPR is better
than no CPR at all, for infants and children
who are heavily driven by oxygenation, if
you know how to do CPR or are willing to do
full CPR, rescue breathing and chest compressions
have been shown to be more beneficial than
just hands only CPR, when it comes to infant
and child patients. Along with CPR, we should
talk about how to access EMS when an emergency
situation is recognized. There’s been a re-emphasis
because of all of the different types of technology,
that we are encouraging people now to not
necessarily spend as much time looking for
landlines when they have a cell phone right
in their pocket. Accessing the phone is a
great way to speed up the time from recognizing
emergency to activation of emergency medical
services. It’s also important for us to realize
that most phones have a speaker phone. So
if you can touch the speaker phone button,
have the dispatcher actually be able to talk
you through the prompts or be there to encourage
you through this very intense moment, it’s
always going to help you to have a better
experience as you work through this process.
The next subject is a topic that I’m very
passionate about, and that’s the training
regarding CPR. The update currently is re-emphasizing
the need for ongoing education and especially
that which is sooner than every two years.
The current recommendation is that you get
re-certified every two years. But what we
see is that people are losing their skills
sooner than that. So it’s important that they
have some way of refreshing their skills more
often, and maybe even getting re-certified
more closely to an annual versus a bi-annual.
I’m sure we’ll see some recommendations evolving
over time with this. But keep it in the back
of your mind, that if there’s a way to refresh
your skills more often, take advantage of
it. It’s also important that we know how deep
we’re compressing the chest of the mannequin
when we’re practicing for real life CPR. So
there’s been a push that mannequins ideally
will have an intrinsic device that actually
will tell you, with some feedback device,
when you’ve reached that 2 to 2.4 inches depth
compression. Now related to the metronome,
or the pace of the compressions, that can
be done either intrinsically in the mannequin
or from an external device. The depth of the
compression can also be an external device
that’s laid over the top of the mannequin
while you’re doing your compressions. Now
let’s talk about the topic of how people learn
and some very interesting science that’s come
back, when it comes to comparing those who
learned via the computer with video based
education and those that were instructor led
in the classroom. See the science shows that
people are learning just as equally well in
a computer based or video based learning environment
as they did in a classroom with an instructor
who led them through the steps. But what we
believe as well is that because they can pace
themselves and they can do it at a time and
in a location that’s most convenient for them,
they’re usually better learners and absorb
the information better. Now probably the biggest
change to this update was the introduction
of the opioid overdose treatment. This is
now implementing nalaxone, when is better
known as Narcan, by its trade name. You see
Narcan, or nalaxone, has now become an over
the counter medication in many states. It
can be delivered or administered through the
nasal passages or through the intra-muscular.
Now what’s great about this is that for those
people who are in respiratory or cardiac arrest,
as a result of an opioid overdose, this treatment
could reverse the effects and help save their
life. So that pretty much highlights most
of the changes as it relates to CPR. And though
I said before, it’s not really changes, it’s
just reiterations, for the most part, in the
exception of the opioid overdose. Now let’s
talk about the First Aid changes that may
be affecting you, as you go through this next
training. So there’s really about five or
six topics that I think are even worth discussing
in the update list. And those are the topics
of bleeding that is out of control or needs
help being controlled, the spinal immobilization
concept, the tooth avulsion, the hypoglycemia
treatment, stroke assessment, and when concussion
patients can actually return to play or work.
Now in bleeding control, there’s three different
pieces of that. One is when to use a hemostatic
agent, when to use a tourniquet, and then
we’re not going to actually use the fully
occlusive chest dressing when we have a chest
wound. These are things that are not really
all that new for the most part, in the exception
of the chest wound occlusive dressing. But
it’s being reiterated that if a bleeding issue
is not controlled easily or the person’s life
may be at risk, that we’re re-encouraging
the use of these hemostatic agents and tourniquet
use. When it comes to spinal immobilization,
the idea is that we’re not really using C
collars anymore. We’re not trying to fully
immobilize. We’re trying to minimize the movement
of the patient, as we know that it’s impossible
to fully immobilize anybody. So that’s just
something to keep in mind. When it comes to
tooth avulsion, there’s been some other treatment
recommendations in what to put teeth into,
and one of the most favorite was milk, whole
milk, and egg whites. And neither of those
are easily stored in a First Aid bag. So we
have some recommendations that we’ll be coming
to, that are a little bit more stable and
more portable and will last longer in a First
Aid bag. When it comes to hypoglycemia, we’re
gonna be talking about how, usually after
the first dose treatment of giving someone
sugar, we now for a diabetic could wait up
to 15 minutes before we activate emergency
medical services and get them on the way,
as we may see a delayed response in giving
the person sugar. Remember, it’s only when
they can safely swallow it themselves, that
we do so. But we’ll cover that in training.
When it comes to the area of concussions,
there’s been an assessment put in place that
when a person has the signs and symptoms of
concussion, that they do not return to play
or work until they’re fully cleared by the
healthcare provider. And lastly, on stroke
assessment, we’ll be showing you the latest
recommendations on how we use an easy to learn
acronym that helps point us to whether or
not a person might be suffering the symptoms
of stroke and how to activate emergency services.
These updates might not seem all that different.
But it’s always good to keep them refreshed.
And we thought summarizing them might help
you look for them when it comes to this update
training for you.

5 Comments

  • Andrew See

    Hi. I have a question. How about if the patient really CANNOT be turn over to supine, is it reasonable to perform CPR while the person lays face down (prone position) ? Have you heard about "Prone CPR"?

  • Andrew See

    I saw "Prone CPR" mentioned in the latest AHA CPR guideline, but I don't know if it is already taught in BLS /ACLS courses. The question is, can you perform CPR on a prone patient who lays Face Down on the ground and how? Can you demonstrate it on youtube?

  • luvhambo

    I have a question. You said that occlusive dressings are no longer recommended for chest wounds (presumably to prevent tension pneumothorax). What is recommended?

  • Ej rocks

    I have a question I'm having chest pain problems and It happiness every year I don't want to do to make my chest pain go away

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